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When Everything Changed

December 13, 2021 laurawattenberg 11 Comments

When Everything Changed

December 13, 2021 LauraWattenberg 11 Comments

A name’s eye view of an American turning point

Police and protesters outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention
Faceoff outside the Democratic National Convention, 1968

Is there a “before” and “after” moment in modern American history? A time when the trajectory changed, when we started living and thinking differently? Based on baby name statistics, that time was the late 1960s with an epicenter of 1968.

I came to that conclusion by looking at the pace of change in American baby naming. I knew, broadly, that change had accelerated in the modern era of creative names. But when did it speed up, and by how much? I decided to look at change in the total distribution of baby names in the US over time, using a measure called Hellinger distance. I calculated a distance score for each year vs. five years prior, a time span long enough to reflect meaningful change.

I expected to see a continual rise in the pace of change over time. What I found instead was a dramatic illustration of the turbulence of the late 1960s and how it transformed our culture. Take a look at the rate of change in American baby names over the past century.

I’ve highlighted the massive acceleration that began in 1966 and peaked in 1968-73, the single greatest five-year period of change in American names.

1968 is remembered as one of the most tumultuous, combustible years of the 20th Century. Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. and presidential candidate Robert Kennedy were assassinated. Protests raged over the Vietnam war as the Tet Offensive turned public opinion. Two Black Olympic athletes were expelled from Team USA after raising their fists on the victory podium. At the Democratic National Convention, police turned against protesters in a violent riot.

We’ve all seen the lasting societal effects of that time, in issues as profound as race and gender, war and peace. Yet the baby name statistics speak to the effects in a different way. This change wasn’t a matter of public policy or mass movements. It was the result of millions of individual parents approaching the intimate act of naming a baby in a new way. Thinking in a new way; dreaming of the future in a new way; imagining a different life for their children.

The change wasn’t just quantitative, as seen in the chart. It was also qualitative. Parents started to name differently. A closer comparison of the names of 1968 and 1973 helps show the nature of that shift. I’ve calculated the names that rose and fell the fastest over the period, color-coding to highlight some notable categories.

Red = Distinctly African-American or Latino/Latina names
Orange = Old Testament/Hebrew Bible names
Blue = New Testament Bible names
Green = English monarch names

RISERS 1968-73FALLERS 1968-73

Amidst the fleeting pop culture trends (goodbye Tammy, hello Carly), some major themes emerge. The rising lists are studded with new race-specific names like Lakeisha, Kareem and Ebony—names chosen almost exclusively by African-American parents. You simply won’t find such names in earlier eras. Until the 1960s, white and Black names were mostly drawn from the same pool.

Among more traditional English names, Old Testament names rose the most. From the perspective of the 21st Century, this may look like a current of traditionalism. Yet Old Testament Bible names lie outside the heart of English Christian naming tradition. In the year 1900, not a single Old Testament name ranked in the top 30 for American boys (compared to 9 out of 30 today). Their rise from 1968-73 represented a modern, style-driven naming impulse.

The falling names, meanwhile, are heavy on the New Testament and British royalty. Which is to say, the core classic names of English language and history. Names like John and Mary represent continuity and uniformity in names and in culture.

Most importantly, Americans haven’t named their babies the same way since. We’re still living in the world that 1968 launched. Half a century later, the rejection of continuity and uniformity in favor of novelty and individual identity defines our name culture.

While the pace of change has ebbed and flowed since the ‘70s, it has remained much faster than the previous baseline. The turnover is fueled by increasing divergence of tastes. Name choices are diverging between groups of all kinds and among individuals within groups. Baby name statistics show us all moving further and further apart with a determination to stake out new, unique territory.

The new era has brought a flowering of pride, variety, personality and freedom. It has also, perhaps inevitably, brought a loss of the mutual trust and solidarity that come from common ground. We see the two effects throughout our society, in ways that range from inspirational to depressing. And as always, you can see the story written in the record of baby names.


Namerology founder and "Baby Name Wizard" author Laura Wattenberg is a globally recognized name expert, known for her scientific approach to understanding name trends and culture.

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  • Penguinmom
    Penguinmom December 14, 2021 at 7:00 am


    Wouldn’t Jeremiah, Jacob, Aaron, and Adam also be considered “Old Testament” names?

    • Namerology
      Namerology December 14, 2021 at 4:02 pm

      Thanks for catching the missing colors! The formatting has been updated.

  • LikeToPivotPivot
    LikeToPivotPivot December 15, 2021 at 11:20 pm

    The year 1968 was an inflection point for something else too: the average age of marriage in the US started to creep up, and 1972 is the bottom of the curve for average age of mother for all births. The period with the greatest change in naming patterns also had the youngest mothers. The other pattern that starts at this point is boy names on girls (I should say restarts since there was a trend in the 20s for unisex names too). It’s probably part of the rate of change you are describing, but it is when you really start seeing more girls being named trending names like Shane, Shawn, Shannon, Stacey/Stacy, even Kelly and Tracy got a bump.

    Interesting note about Kenneth, 1968 is the start of a deep decline that levels off after a couple years that I couldn’t attribute to anyone in particular giving it a bad association, other than the Kennedys in the news perhaps, with just sharing the first 3 letters.

    • Marina December 17, 2021 at 11:31 pm

      Oops, I replied further down without realising I could reply directly!

  • Elizabeth December 16, 2021 at 3:34 pm

    School integration really accelerated during this period as well, reaching its zenith in 1987, the year after babies born in 1968 graduated. Interestingly, attending school with people from all racial backgrounds did not seem to have resulted in uniform naming.

  • Marina December 17, 2021 at 11:30 pm

    I’m sorry this is a tangent, but does anyone know what prompted the popularity of Chastity, especially in an era associated with “free love”?

    LikeToPivotPivot, that’s so interesting. Was it the high point of young mothers because families were getting smaller (without the age at marriage necessarily decreasing), so there were fewer older women giving birth?

    • Namerology
      Namerology December 18, 2021 at 12:43 am

      @Marina — Chastity was from the child of Cher & Sonny Bonno, born in 1969. The various forms of Katina were inspired by a baby on a soap opera. Katina was apparently the “Renesmee” of its day, named after characters Katie and Christina.

      • Marina December 19, 2021 at 4:32 pm

        Ah, interesting – I assumed Sonny and Cher were part of the trend, rather than the instigators. Looking into it, it seems they took the name from a film they made, in which Cher plays a character called Chastity… Reading the Wikipedia plot summary, it’s surprising they then used it for their baby!

  • Megan December 21, 2021 at 1:17 pm

    I don’t know if this was true during the period you looked at, but I remember Brandon being associated with the Black community at a level that was statistically significant in Freakonomics.

  • Barry March 17, 2022 at 5:27 am

    You mention that “in the year 1900, not a single Old Testament name ranked in the top 30 for American boys.” But how about *way* before 1900? It seems America was a land of Old Testament names from 1600 on. In fact, there’s no more reliable way to signal “old-time America”, whether in Hawthorne’s East Coast or the Wild West, than to pick solid old Biblical names like Jeremiah and Abigail.

    The Beverly Hillbillies’ patriarch was Jed — Jedediah! — an unmistakable way to telegraph “backwoods hick.” These are the same people who use classic old-time English like “yon” and “reckon.”

    I’d be interested to see the *whole* graph, from 1611 on, maybe derived from baptismal records or something.

    whatayathink? Valid?

    • Namerology
      Namerology March 17, 2022 at 6:25 pm

      It’s interesting, the names that signal time periods aren’t necessarily the most COMMON names of that time period, but rather the most DISTINCTIVE. So for instance, if you look at Hawthorne’s Massachusetts, a man was 20 times as likely to be named John as Jeremiah. In Old West Nebraska, the John:Jeremiah ratio was more like 300:1. But because Jeremiah later dwindled away and John didn’t, Jeremiah is a popular choice for storytellers to signal the early time periods. What’s more, the Old Testament names that genuinely were common back then, like David, often sound the most modern today. A Puritan Preacher Dave or a Wild West Sheriff Dave just doesn’t have the same impact as a Jedidiah. 🙂

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